Watch Cases come in all sorts of sizes and can be made from many different materials like Stainless Steel, Rubber, Ceramic, and other precious metals such as Gold, Silver, and Titanium.
The only thing they have in common is that they house the movement and dial and keep them protected from the physical world outside. How much protection all depends on the main function of the watch, being it Aviation, Diver, Sports, or Dress watch for examples.
Some features of the case design are protective such as on Diver watches, the Screw down crown, Screw down back, Helium Release Valve, Liquid filled, Domed Glass and Hermetically sealed case all add up to a watch that can withstand great pressures and remain water-resistant.
Screw down Back does what is says on the tin. The screw down back creates a secure, strong and watertight seal that works well under pressure.
Helium Release Valve is a valve that allows prolonged deep diving. Not much to look at and probably nothing you will need to worry about unless you are a deep sea diver.
Liquid Filled Dive Watches are more resistant to the great pressure found at depth due to the air space usually found in watches having been replaced by a noncompressible liquid.
Domed Glass is another important tool in the fight against pressure found underwater. The dome shape provides a naturally strong and very resilient surface against the outside pressures.
The hermetic seal on Dive watches is something that all Dive watches need in addition to all the other tools at the Divers disposal. Without the hermetic or airtight seal all the qualities such as screw down crown, and back, the domed glass and the liguid filled case would be useless.
A really nice feature on some expensive Swiss made watches is the skeleton case back that allows the owner to view the inner workings of the movement.
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